Sending a sensitive file, one that should be encrypted, amongst Linux and OSS geeks is doable. Most have heard of PGP, many have a GPG key (here is mine) and some even use it. Sending an encrypted file to most people is a non-starter. The software may be there (Outlook is S/MIME capable), but the knowledge and the experience definately isn’t. Which is a shame, because I’d like to have my bank statement securely sent to my email account. PGP Desktop has a feature called the Self Decrypting Archive. To quote the PGP Command Line for Servers FAQ:
A Self-Decrypting Archive (SDA) is an executable containing a file that has been encrypted using a passphrase. A recipient of an SDA runs the executable and enters the passphrase to decrypt the file.
SDAs are an attempt to make encrypted email easier, by making decryption far easier for the recipient. However, Self Decrypting Archives are fundementally insecure. Here is how they’re meant to work:
- Alice runs PGP Desktop to encrypt a sensitive file, so she can send it to Bob.
- Bob doesn’t have any encryption software, so PGP Desktop encrypts the sensitive file and appends it to a small decryptor program. The decryptor + sensitive file is the SDA.
- Alice sends the SDA to Bob, attached to an email. Over the phone she tells him the encryption key.
- Bob receives the email, and runs the SDA.
- The SDA requests the decryption key, and decrypts file for Bob.
That sounds great. Alice can encrypt files, send them securely to Bob, then he can decrypt them. Bob doesn’t need any encryption software installed. Here’s the problem: Bob is running an unverified program. Supposedly it’s from Alice, but he can’t be sure. This is exactly how email viruses spread. Bob cannot trust the SDA, since he cannot be sure what he received was really sent by Alice. Could Alice sign the SDA, including the decryptor program? Yes, but it won’t help. All Bob has to verify Alice’s signature on the SDA, is the decryptor program in that same SDA. Here’s how Mallory, an attacker can subvert this:
- Alice sends the encrypted, signed SDA to Bob, and tells Bob the encryption key
- Mallory intercepts the email, replaces the decryptor program with his own. He sends the modified SDA on to Bob, spoofing the from address.
- Bob receives the email, and runs Mallory’s SDA.
- Mallory’s decryptor, running on Bob’s machine fakes a signature verification.
- Mallory’s decryptor requests the encryption key and decrypts the file for Bob. It also sends the decrypted file back to Mallory, and installs a back door on Bob’s computer.
The bottom line, is that you and I must be able to trust our encryption software, or the encryption is pointless. For that we must be able to verify we got it from a trustworthy source. Unsigned email, or email that verifies it’s own signature, cannot be trustworthy.